Pj Problems - Overview
The Number Line
7 Spaces Of Interest - Overview
Triadic Unit Mesh
States Of Matter
COHN - Natures Engineering Of The Human Body
The Human-Body Systems
Faith, Love, Charity
(1) The general representative string for the structure of matter and the implicit string that establishes the structure were indicated in a PjProblemStrings Structure Of Matter. Here, we examine specific concepts associated with the covalent bonding that establishes molecular shapes.
(a) Will a substance with electronegativity of 3.0 covalently bond with another substance with electronegativity of 0.9? Represent this bonding with strings
(b) Will a substance with electronegativity of 2.1 covalently bond with a substance with electronegativity of 3.0? Represent this bonding with strings.
(c) What is the nature of the covalent bonding between two substances with the same electronegativity.
(d) What is the difference between a polar molecule and a dipole.
(e) Define bond length and bond angle. Write representative strings for each.
(a) The electronegativity of an atom in a covalent bond is a measure of its ability to draw bonding electrons to itself. In a covalent bond, the electrons shared are closer to the atom with the higher electronegativity. Chlorine (Cl) has electronegativity of 3.0. Sodium (Na) has electronegativity of 0.9. The absolute difference in electronegativity is significantly high so as to cause a complete transfer of electron to chlorine. Consequently an ionic bond is formed. A covalent bond is not formed.
(S7P3A31)chlorine >> (very much greater) (S7P3A31)sodium
(b) Hydrogen has electronegativity of 2.1. Chlorine has electronegativity of 3.0. The absolute electronegativity difference is not large enough to cause a complete transfer of electrons. So a covalent bond is formed. However, the shared electrons are closer to the chlorine atom. In general, sharing of electrons will occur if the absolute difference in electronegativity is less than 1.7. The atom with the higher electronnegativity will draw the shared electrons closer to itself. The electrons are equally shared between atoms with the same electronegativity (i.e difference is zero).
(S7P3A31)chlorine > (S7P3A31)hydrogen
(c) The shared electrons are equally shared.
(d) A polar molecule is a dipole. A polar molecule is formed when the bonding electrons spend more time near one atom than the other usually as a result of difference in electronegativity. Consequently, there is a partially positive charge region and partially negative charge region in the molecule.
Bond length is the normal distance between the nuclei of bonding atoms. Representative string is
Bond angle is the angle formed by two bond axes (bond axis is the line connecting the nuclei of two bonded atoms) extending from the same atom.
An angle in radians is a ratio of arc length and radius length. So its representative string is
(S7P1A12)arc length/(S7P1A12)radius length. The center of the circle is the nuclei of the atom from which the bond axes extend.
The point . is a mathematical abstraction. It has negligible size and a great sense of position. Consequently, it is front and center in abstract existential reasoning.
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Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs)
Separation Of Variables As Solution Method For Homogeneous Heat Flow Equation
Newton And Fourier Cooling Laws Applied To Heat Flow Boundary Conditions
Derivation Of Heat Equation For A One-Dimensional Heat Flow
The Universe is composed of matter and radiant energy. Matter is any kind of mass-energy that moves with velocities less than the velocity of light. Radiant energy is any kind of mass-energy that moves with the velocity of light.
Composition And Structure Of Matter
How Matter Gets Composed
How Matter Gets Composed (2)
Molecular Structure Of Matter
Molecular Shapes: Bond Length, Bond Angle
Molecular Shapes: Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion
Molecular Shapes: Orbital Hybridization
Molecular Shapes: Sigma Bonds Pi Bonds
Molecular Shapes: Non ABn Molecules
Molecular Orbital Theory
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