Its All about Pj Problem Strings (SiPjAjk) - 7 Spaces Of Interest (Si) and their associated Basic Sequences; 7 Pj Problems of Interest (PPI) and their Alleles (Ajk)

Molecular Shape - Valence Bond Theory - Orbital Hybridization

1. Define the following: (a) Electron Orbital (b) Orbital Overlap (c) Electron Promotion
(d) Hund's Rule (e) Hybrid Orbitals (f) Valence Bond Theory
2. Indicate the hybridization and bond angles associated with each of the following electron-domain geometries: (a) linear (b) trigonal planar (c) tetrahedral (d) trigonal bipyramidal (e) octahedral.
3(a) Describe the steps needed to construct the hybrid orbitals that appropriately explains the bonding in BF3?
(b) Name the hybrid orbitals constructed in (a) and sketch on one origin, the large lobes of the hybrid orbitals.
(c) If there are any unhybridized valence atomic orbitals of B in BF3 how are they oriented relative to the hybridized orbitals?
4. Indicate the hybridization of the central atom in:
(a) BCl3 (b) AlCl4- (c) PF6-
5. Write general representative strings for orbital hybridization.

1(a) Electron Orbital: a region of space around the nucleus of an atom where an electron is very likely to be found according to the quantum mechanics model of the atom.
1(b) Orbital Overlapp: The region of space between the nuclei of the two atoms involved in a covalent bond that can be shared by their respective valence atomic orbitals. This region of space results from the overlap of the valence atomic orbitals.
1(c) Electron-promotion: the transfer of an electron from a valence atomic orbital of a subshell of a valence shell to an empty valence atomic orbital of the next subshell of the same valence shell.
1(d) Hund's Rule: The pairing of electrons in orbitals occurs only after each orbital has had one electron placed in it.
1(e) Hybrid Orbitals: the set of orbitals derived from the mixing of two or more valence atomic orbitals. The mixing process is called hybridization.
There are five basic types of hybrid orbitals (figure 9.4):
sp hybrid orbitals, sp2 hybrid orbitals, sp3 hybrid orbitals, sp3d hybrid orbitals, sp3d2hybrid orbitals 1(f) Valence Bond Theory: A model used to explain covalent bonding between atoms. It posits that an electron-pair bond is formed between two atoms by the overlap of the valence atomic orbitals of the atoms.

2(a) A linear electron domain geometry is derived from 2 bonding domains and zero non bonding domains. Consequently, two s,p hybrid orbital set resulting from the hybridization of the s,p atomic orbital set are associated with a linear electron domain geometry. Bond angle = 180o.
(b) A trigonal planar electron domain geometry is derived from 3 bonding domains and zero non bonding domains. Consequently, three s,p2 hybrid orbital set resulting from the hybridization of the s,p,p atomic orbital set are associated with a trigonal planar electron domain geometry. Bond angle = 120o.
(c) A tetrahedral electron domain geometry is derived from 4 bonding domains and zero non bonding domains. Consequently, four s,p3 hybrid orbital set resulting from the hybridization of the s,p,p,p atomic orbital set are associated with a tetrahedral electron domain geometry. Bond angle = 109.5o.
(d) A trigonal bipyramidal electron domain geometry is derived from 5 bonding domains and zero non bonding domains. Consequently, five s,p3d hybrid orbital set resulting from the hybridization of the s,p,p,p,d atomic orbital set are associated with a trigonal pyramidal electron domain geometry. Bond angles = 90o, 120o and 180o.
(e) A octahedral electron domain geometry is derived from 6 bonding domains and zero non bonding domains. Consequently, five s,p3d2 hybrid orbital set resulting from the hybridization of the s,p,p,p,d,d atomic orbital set are associated with an octahedral electron domain geometry. Bond angles = 90o and 180o.

3(a) Electron configuration of B (Boron) = 1s22s22p1. One 2s electron is promoted to a 2p orbital. So there are 3 unpaired electrons: 1 in the 2s orbital, 2 in two 2p orbitals. So, the hybridization results in 3 sp2 hybrid orbitals which form a trigonal planar electron domain geometry with a bond angle of 120o.
(b) sp2 hybrid orbitals.
(c) One 2p orbital is unhybridized. Its orientation is perpendicular to the trigonal plane of the sp2 hybrid orbitals.

4(a) Central atom = B; valence-shell configuration = 2s22p1; one 2s electron is promoted to a 2p orbital; hybridization results in 3 sp2 hybrid orbitals.
(b) Central atom = Al; valence-shell configuration = 3s23p1; one 3s electron is promoted to a 3p orbital.; excess electron is at third 3p 0rbital; hybridization results in four sp3 hybrid orbitals.
(c) Central atom = P; valence-shell configuration = 3s23p3; third 3p electron is promoted to a first 3d orbital; one 3s electron is promoted to a 3p orbital; excess electron is at second 3d orbital; hybridization results in six sp3d2 hybrid orbitals.

5. Orbital Hybridization has:S7P6A64 (multi-criteria permutation) and S7P6A66 (chemical interaction) as its general representative strings.

Mind Warm Ups

The point "." is a mathematical abstraction. It has negligible size and a great sense of position. Consequently, it is front and center in abstract existential reasoning.

Problems by Peter O. Sagay

Conics

Vector Spaces

Real Numbers

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