Molecular Shape - Structure Of Matter
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Expressions Of Pj Problems
Molecular Shape - Structure Of Matter

(1) Matter expresses its residency in space according to specific arrangements of its constituents. The totality of this arrangement constitute the structure of matter. Consider the following arrangement of the constituents of methanol:

Structural Formula Methanol

(a) Write the molecular formula and structural formula for methanol and indicate why they are different.

(b) Write a general representative string for the structure of a compound. Then explain this representation by describing the key string implicit in the representative string.

Structural Formula Methanol

(a) The molecular formula and structural formula of methanol are indicated in figure 2. The molecular formula shows the exact number and kinds of atoms in a molecule. The structural formula shows the atom to atom bonding of the elements that constitute the molecular formula. Another formula sometimes used is the empirical formula which shows the irreducable mole ratio of the elements in a compound.

(b) S7P1A17 is the general representative string for the structure of a compound because the location of the constituents of a compound relative to one another establishes its structure. (S7P3A31)chemical bonds is the key string implicit in the representative string.
There are three general types of chemical bonds: ionic bonds, covalent bonds and metallic bonds.
Ionic bond: formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another. This transfer leaves the donor atom positively charge and the acceptor atom negatively charged. The electrostatic attraction between the opposite charges of the atoms establishes ionic bond. Ionic substances usually result from the bonding of metals on the far left side of the periodic table with nonmetal on the far right side of the periodic table (nobles gases excluded). For example, sodium chloride (Na+Cl-, common salt).
Covalent bond: formed by the sharing of a pair of electrons. Nonmetallic elements usually bond with one another by sharing pairs of electrons. For example, methanol (CH3OH).
Metallic bonding: each atom in is bonded to several neighbouring atoms. The bonding electrons have relatively free movement throughout the three dmensional structure of the metal. For example, the atoms of copper, Iron, and aluminum'
These chemical bonds that establish the structure of matter are expressions of the force pull.

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