Predicting The Shape Of ABn Molecules Through Valence-Shell-Electron-Pair-Repulsion Model (VSEPR)

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Predicting The Shape Of ABn Molecules Through Valence-Shell-Electron-Pair-Repulsion Model (VSEPR)

Precise molecular shapes are determined by the bond lengths and bond angles established by the bonding atoms. However, the *Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion* (VSEPR) model predicts molecular shapes fairly well. Here, we examine VSEPR as it relates to the prediction of molecular shapes of AB molecules. <
1. Define the following: (a) AB

1(a) AB_{n} molecules are molecules with a central atom (A) and n similar atoms (B) bonded to A. For example CO_{2} (where carbon is the A atom and oxygen the B atoms with n =2).

1(b) The Lewis Dot Diagram is the representation of an atom, ion, or molecule such that the element's symbol represents the nucleus and all inner shell electrons while the dots that surround the symbol represent the valence electrons. The diagram is also called the *Lewis structure* of the atom, ion or molecule.

1(c) *Electron domain* refers to the region occupied by *non-bonding pair of electrons*, a *single covalent bond*, or *multiple covalent bonds* around the central atom of an *AB _{n}* molecule.

2. The Lewis structures for the molecules are:

3. The general steps for using the VSEPR model is as follows:

(i). Determine the Lewis structure of the molecule or ion, then count the total electron-domains around the central atom. Each

(ii). Determine the

(iii). Use the arrangement of the bonded atoms to determine the

Electron domains = 2; bonding domains = 2; nonbonding domains = 0; electron geometry = linear; molecular geometry = linear; bonding angle = 180

Electron domains = 3; bonding domains = 3; nonbonding domains = 0; electron geometry = trigonal planar; molecular geometry = trigonal planar; bonding angle =120

Electron domains = 4; bonding domains = 4; nonbonding domains = 0; electron geometry = tetrahedral; molecular geometry = tetrahedral; bonding angle = 109.5

Electron domains = 5; bonding domains = 5; nonbonding domains = 0; electron geometry = trigonal bipyramidal; molecular geometry = trigonal bipyramidal; bonding angle between axial and equatorial bond = 90

.

Electron domains = 6; bonding domains = 6; nonbonding domains = 0; electron geometry = octahedral; molecular geometry = octahedral; bonding angle between axial and equatorial bond = 90

4.

electron domains = 4; bonding domains = 2; nonbonding domains = 2; electron geometry = tetrahedral; molecular geometry = bent (tetrahedral minus 2 electron domains); bond angle will be less than 120

electron domains = 6; bonding domains = 4; nonbonding domains = 2; electron geometry = octahedral; molecular geometry = square planar (ocahedral minus 2 axial electron domains); bond angle 90

electron domains = 4; bonding domains = 3; nonbonding domains = 1; electron geometry = tetrahedral; molecular geometry = trigonal pyramidal (tetraahedral minus 1 electron domain); bond angle will be less than 120

5. The VSEPR model is based on repulsion so the general representative string is:

(S

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