Acid - Base Definitions
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Acid - Base Definitions

Acid Base Definitions

Tika is a bright chemistry student. She posits that the formation of a complex ion is an acid-base reaction in which the complex ion is the acid and the ligand is the base. What acid-base definition did Tika used to arrive at this conclusion?

The strings:

S7P2A22 (Identity - Chemical Property).

The math:
Pj Problem of Interest is of type identity (chemical property). Definition problems are of type identity.

Acid - Base Definitions

Arrhenius acid -base definition:
Acids are substances that ionize in water solution to produce hydrogen ions, H+, or free protons.
Bases are substances that ionize in water solution to produce hydroxide ions, OH-.
For example:

HCl -------> H+ + Cl- ----(1)

NaOH -------> Na+ + OH- ----(2)

In reaction (1), hydrochloric acid (hydrogen chloride gas dissolved in water) ionizes into positive hydrogen ion and negative chlorine ion.
In reaction (2), Sodium hydroxide crystals dissolved in water and dissociates into positive sodium ion and negative hydroxide ion.
Reaction (2) is a dissociation instead of an ionization because the ions already exist in the crystal. These ions separate when the crystal is dissolved in water.

Bronsted-Lowry's acid -base definition:
Acids are proton donors
Bases are proton acceptors.
For example:

NH3 + H2O -------> [NH4]+ + OH- ----(3)
In reaction (3), water is the acid because it donates a proton and ammonia is the base because it accepts the proton.
In general, an acid-base reaction is described as:
acid + base -------> conjugate base + conjugate acid
The conjugate base of an acid is the particle that remains after a proton has been released by the acid.
The conjugate acid results when the base acquires a proton from the acid.

Lewis' acid -base definition:
Acids are electron-pair acceptors
Bases are electron-pair donors.
The Lewis acid-base definition is broader in the sense that they apply to reactions and solutions that do not involve hydrogen or hydrogen ions. Applying the Lewis definitions to reaction (3) results in ammonia being the base and the hydrogen atom attached to the oxygen of the water molecule being the acid.

Tika used the Lewis acid-base definition.
A complex ion is formed when polar molecules (negative ions) cluster around a central positive ion.
The polar molecules are called ligands.


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