Difference Between Molecular, Empirical And Structural Formulas

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Difference Between Molecular, Empirical And Structural Formulas

Atoms are the smallest stable constituents of the elements in nature. However, only the noble-gas elements are usually found as isolated atoms in nature. Most substances in nature are found as combinations of atoms as *molecules* and *ions*. Molecular and ionic compounds are represented by *chemical formulas*. The three commonly used chemical formulas are: *empirical formula*,* molecular formula* and structural formula.

What is the difference between molecular, empirical and structural formulas?

**The strings**:
S_{7}P_{2}A_{22} (Identity - Chemical Identity).
**The math**:

Pj Problem of Interest is of type *identity* (chemical identity).

Imagine that the atoms A, B and C combine to form one molecule of the compound M
**Molecular Formula** indicates the actual numbers of each of the atoms that form a molecule (figure 1a).

If A_{x}B_{y}C_{z} is the molecular formula for M, then there are x atoms of A, y atoms of B and z atoms of C in compound M.
**Empirical Formula** indicates the relative number of each of the atoms that form a molecule (figure 1b).

A_{x/d}B_{y/d}C_{z/d} is the empirical formula for compound M.

Where d is the greatest common divisor of x, y and z.
**Structural Formula** indicates the specific attachments of the atoms to one another (figure 1c).

Is A attached to B or to C? Is B attached to C? the structural formular answers these questions.

A structural formula does not indicate the bond angles of the atoms and so does not show the molecular geometry of the molecule.

Chemists use various models to visualize the molecular geometry of a molecule. The *ball and stick* and the *space-filling model* are two of the commonly used models.

Math

The *point* **.** is a mathematical abstraction. It has negligible size and a great sense of position. Consequently, it is front and center in abstract existential reasoning.

Derivation Of The Area Of A Circle, A Sector Of A Circle And A Circular Ring

Derivation Of The Area Of A Trapezoid, A Rectangle And A Triangle

Derivation Of The Area Of An Ellipse

Derivation Of Volume Of A Cylinder

Derivation Of Volume Of A Sphere

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Homogenizing-Non-Homogeneous-Time-Varying-IBVP-Boundary-Condition

The Universe is composed of *matter* and *radiant energy*. *Matter* is any kind of *mass-energy* that moves with velocities less than the velocity of light. *Radiant energy* is any kind of *mass-energy* that moves with the velocity of light.

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Composition And Structure Of Matter

How Matter Gets Composed

How Matter Gets Composed (2)

Molecular Structure Of Matter

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Molecular Shapes: Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion

Molecular Shapes: Orbital Hybridization

Molecular Shapes: Sigma Bonds Pi Bonds

Molecular Shapes: Non ABn Molecules

Molecular Orbital Theory

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