Empirical And Molecular Formulas of A Substance From Its Percent Compositions

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Empirical And Molecular Formulas of A Substance From Its Percent Compositions

Determine the empirical and molecular formulas for the following substances:

(a) Styrene with molar mass of 104 g/mol; carbon (C) percent composition is 92.3%; hydrogen (H) is 7.7% by mass.

(b) Caffeine with molar mass 195 g/mol; carbon (C) percent composition is 49.5%; hydrogen (H) is 5.15%; nitrogen (N) is 28.9%; oxygen (O) 16.5% by mass.

(c) Monosodium glutamate (MSG) with molar mass 169 g/mol; carbon (C) percent composition is 35.51%; hydrogen (H) is 4.77%; oxygen (O) is 37.85%; nitrogen (N) is 8.29%; sodium (Na) is 13.60%.

**The strings**:
S_{7}P_{2}A_{22} (identity-chemical).
**The math**:

Pj Problem of Interest is of type *identity* (chemical).

**(a)**Assume 100g mass of styrene:

So, moles of carbon = 92.3/12 = 7.7 moles

So, moles of hydrogen = 7.7/1 = 7.7 moles

So, mole ratio is 1:1

So empirical formula = CH

Mass from empirical formula = 12 + 1 =13

Given molar mass of styrene = 104 g/mol

So, molar mass is 8 times mass from empirical formula

So, Molecular formula = C_{8}Hsub>8.
**(b)**Assume 100g mass of caffeine:

So, moles of carbon = 49.5/12 = 4.125 moles

So, moles of hydrogen = 5.15/1 = 5.15 moles

So, moles of nitrogen = 28.9/14 = 2.06

So, moles of oxygen = 16.5/16 = 1.03

So, mole ratios is 4:5:2:1

So, empirical formula = C_{4}H_{5}N_{2}O

Mass from empirical formula = 48 + 5 + 28 + 16 = 97

Given molar mass of caffeine = 195 g/mol

So, molar mass is 2 times mass from empirical formula

So, Molecular formula = C_{8}H_{10}N_{4}O_{2}.
**(c)****(b)**Assume 100g mass of caffeine:

So, moles of carbon = 35.5/12 = 2.96 moles

So, moles of hydrogen = 4.77/1 = 4.77 moles

So, moles of oxygen = 37.85/16 = 2.37

So, moles of nitrogen = 8.29/14 = 0.59

So, moles of sodium = 13.6/23 = 0.59

So, mole ratios is 5:8:4:1:1

So, empirical formula = NaC_{5}H_{8}O_{4}N

Mass from empirical formula = 23 + 60 + 8 + 64 + 14 = 169

Given molar mass of monosodium glutamate =169 g/mol

So, molar mass is equals mass from empirical formula

So, Molecular formula = NaC_{5}H_{8}O_{4}N

Math

The *point* **.** is a mathematical abstraction. It has negligible size and a great sense of position. Consequently, it is front and center in abstract existential reasoning.

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