Expressions Of Pj Problems

Pj Problems - Overview

Celestial Stars

The Number Line

Geometries

7 Spaces Of Interest - Overview

Triadic Unit Mesh

Creation

The Atom

Survival

Energy

Light

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Sound

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Language

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States Of Matter

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Nuclear Reactions

Molecular Shapes

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Human-cells

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Nucleic Acids

COHN - Natures Engineering Of The Human Body

The Human-Body Systems

Vision

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Photosynthesis

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Differential Calculus

Antiderivative

Integral Calculus

Economies

Inflation

Markets

Money Supply

Painting

Ionic Compounds

*Ionic compounds* are compounds formed by two or more *ions*. Many important compounds are ionic compounds.

(a) What are ions?

(b) Use the periodic table to predict the charge of the following elements:

(i) Mg, (ii) Al, (iii) K, (iv) S, (v) F.

(c) Use the periodic table to predict the formula and name of the compound formed by the following elements:

(i) Ga and F, (ii) Li and H, (iii) Al and I, (iv) K and S.

(d) Predict the chemical formula for the ionic compound formed by:

(i) Ca^{2+} and Br^{-}, (ii) K^{+} and CO_{3}^{2-}, (iii) Al^{3+} and C_{2}H_{3}O_{2}^{-} (iv) NH_{4}^{+} and SO_{4}^{2-}, (v) Mg^{2+} and PO_{4}^{3-}.

(e) Which of the following are molecular compounds and which are ionic compounds?

(i) B_{2}H_{6}, (ii) CH_{3}OH, (iii) LiNO_{3}, (iv) Sc_{2}O_{3}, (v) CsBr, (vi) NOCL, (vii) NF_{3}, (viii) Ag_{2}SO_{4}.

(f) Determine the chemical formulas that distinguish the following compounds from one another:

(i) calcium sulfide and calcium hydrogen sulfide (ii) hydrobromic acid and bromic acid (iii) aluminum nitride and aluminum nitrite (iv) iron (II) oxide and iron (III) oxide (v) ammonia and ammonia ion (vi) potassium sulfite and potassium bisulfite (vii) mercurous chloride and mercuric chloride (viii) chloric acid and perchloric acid.

**The strings**:
S_{7}P_{2}A_{22} (Identity - Chemical Identity).
**The math**:

Pj Problem of Interest is of type *identity* (chemical identity).

**(a)** The elements of the periodic table are charge neutral because numbers of positive charges (protons) equal numbers of negative charges (electrons). When some elements combine to form compounds, they do so by either donating or accepting electrons. The donation or acceptance of electrons changes the element's charge neutrality. Donors of electrons become positively charged (+) because they become electron deficient and now have more protons than electrons. Acceptors of electrons become negatively charged (-) because they become electron rich and now have more electrons than protons. An **ion** is an element that is positively or negatively charged. An **ionic compound** is a compound formed by *ions*. A positively charged ion is called a **cation**. A negatively charged ion is called an **anion**.
**(b)**Three regions in an atom determines its electron configuration: *shell*, *subshell* and *orbitals*. A shell is also called the principal quantum number or energy-level of an atom. It is usually denoted by the letter *n*. For example, *n = 1* implies the first shell (shell or energy-level nearest the nucleus of the atom); *n = 2* implies the second shell and so on. Energy increases with increasing *n*.

There are *n* subshells in the *nth* shell. The first subshell is called the *s* subshell, the second is called the *p* subshell, the third is called the *d* subshell, the fourth is called the *f* subshell, the fifth the *g* subshell and so on.

There are *n ^{2}* orbitals in the

In general, a shell with principal quantum number

The total number of electrons in the shell is the sum of all the electrons in all the orbitals of the shell's subshells. The total electrons in an

Max number of electrons in the s subshell = 2 (1 orbital), p subshell = 6 (3 orbitals), d orbital =10 (5 orbitals), f orbital = 14 (7 orbitals), etc.

Atomic number of magnesium (Mg) = 12, energy level, n = 3,

So, electron configuration for magnesium (Mg) 3s orbital filling:

1s

So, Mg has 2 donatable electrons in its valence shell

So magnesium ion = Mg

So, electron configuration for aluminum, 3p orbitals filling:

1s

So, Al has 3 donatable electrons in its valence shell

So aluminum ion = Al

Electron configuration for potassium, 4s orbital filling:

1s

So, K has 1 donatable electron in its valence shell

So, potassium ion = K

So, electron configuration for sulphur, 3p orbital filling:

1s

So, S can accept 2 electrons in its valence shell

So, sulphur ion = S

So, electron configuration for fluorine, 2p orbital filling:

1s

So, F can accept 1 electron in its valence shell

So, fluorine ion = F

So, electron configuration for gallium, 4p orbital filling:

1s

So, 3 donatable electrons

So,gallium ion =Ga

Fluorine ion = F

So, 3 ions of fluorine will combine with 1 ion of gallium to form:

Gallium (III) Fluoride, GaF

Compound formed = LH = lithium hydride.

Compound formed = AlI

Compound formed K

compound = CaBr

compound form = K

So, (i) B

So, (iii) LiNO

Math

The *point* **.** is a mathematical abstraction. It has negligible size and a great sense of position. Consequently, it is front and center in abstract existential reasoning.

Derivation Of The Area Of A Circle, A Sector Of A Circle And A Circular Ring

Derivation Of The Area Of A Trapezoid, A Rectangle And A Triangle

Derivation Of The Area Of An Ellipse

Derivation Of Volume Of A Cylinder

Derivation Of Volume Of A Sphere

Derivation Of Volume Of A Cone

Derivation Of Volume Of A Torus

Derivation Of Volume Of A Paraboloid

Volume Obtained By Revolving The Curve y = x^{2} About The X Axis

Single Variable Functions

Absolute Value Functions

Conics

Real Numbers

Vector Spaces

Equation Of The Ascent Path Of An Airplane

Calculating Capacity Of A Video Adapter Board Memory

Probability Density Functions

Boolean Algebra - Logic Functions

Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs)

Infinite Sequences And Series

Introduction To Group Theory

Advanced Calculus - Partial Derivatives

Advanced Calculus - General Charateristics Of Partial Differential Equations

Advanced Calculus - Jacobians

Advanced Calculus - Solving PDEs By The Method Of Separation Of Variables

Advanced Calculus - Fourier Series

Advanced Calculus - Multiple Integrals

Production Schedule That Maximizes Profit Given Constraint Equation

Separation Of Variables As Solution Method For Homogeneous Heat Flow Equation

Newton And Fourier Cooling Laws Applied To Heat Flow Boundary Conditions

Fourier Series

Derivation Of Heat Equation For A One-Dimensional Heat Flow

Homogenizing-Non-Homogeneous-Time-Varying-IBVP-Boundary-Condition

The Universe is composed of *matter* and *radiant energy*. *Matter* is any kind of *mass-energy* that moves with velocities less than the velocity of light. *Radiant energy* is any kind of *mass-energy* that moves with the velocity of light.

Periodic Table

Composition And Structure Of Matter

How Matter Gets Composed

How Matter Gets Composed (2)

Molecular Structure Of Matter

Molecular Shapes: Bond Length, Bond Angle

Molecular Shapes: Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion

Molecular Shapes: Orbital Hybridization

Molecular Shapes: Sigma Bonds Pi Bonds

Molecular Shapes: Non ABn Molecules

Molecular Orbital Theory

More Pj Problem Strings