Similar Valence-Shell Electrons - Similar Chemical Properties
Strings (SiPjAjk) = S7P2A22 Base Sequence = 12735 String Sequence = 12735 - 2 - 22
The electron configurations of seven elements of the Periodic Table are shown in Table 10.1. Which of the elements should have similar physical and chemical properties?
S7P2A22 (Identity - Chemical properties).
Pj Problem of Interest is of type identity. The Pj Problem of type grouping is also important because the problem is to determine groups of elements with similar chemical properties. However, the grouping is implicit in the identity of the elements. It is through the atomic numbers (identity) of the elements that one determines the valence-shell electrons which establish the properties of the elements.
Table 10.1, Row 1: element is Helium (He)
Atomic number = 2; Valence-shell electrons = 2.
Row 2: element is Beryllium (Be)
Atomic number = 4; Valence-shell electrons = 2.
Row 3: element is Carbon (C)
Atomic number = 6; Valence-shell electrons = 4.
Row 4: element is Fluorine (F)
Atomic number = 9; Valence-shell electrons = 7.
Row 5: element is Magnesium (Mg)
Atomic number = 12; Valence-shell electrons = 2.
Row 6: element is Phosphorus (P)
Atomic number = 15; Valence-shell electrons = 5.
Row 7: element is Chromium (Cr)
Atomic number = 24; Valence-shell electrons = 6.
Beryllium and Magnesium are metals that have the same number of valence-shell electrons and so should have similar chemical properties. Helium also has 2 valence-shell electrons but it is a gas and is usually grouped with the inert gases.
In general, elements with the same number of valence-shell electrons have similar physical and chemical properties. Also the group number of an element in the periodic table equals the number of its valence-shell electrons. Consequently, members of the same group have similar physical and chemical properties.
The point . is a mathematical abstraction. It has negligible size and a great sense of position. Consequently, it is front and center in abstract existential reasoning.
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