How Matter Gets Composed
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Expressions Of Pj Problems
How Matter Gets Composed

(1) Interprete the following string scenarios:
(a) S7P6A65 ----> S7P5A51
(b) S7P6A66 ----> S7P5A52
(2) What string represents the role of:
(a) a catalyst in a chemical reaction?
(b) an inhibitor in a chemical reaction?

The string:
2(a) S7P3A31 (Force - Pull).
2(b) S7P3A32 (Force - Push).
The math: 1(a) A physical process in a multi-matter multi-dynamic space results in a physical change in a multi-matter multi-dynamic space. For example, sugar dissolved in water (physical process) results in a sugar solution (physical change).
1(b) A chemical process in a multi-matter multi-dynamic space results in a chemica change in a multi-matter multi-dynamic space. For example, hydrogen reacts with oxygen (chemical process) to form water (chemical change).
2(a). A catalyst speeds up a chemical reaction without being permanently changed. Catalysis is the process of increasing rates of reaction by the presence of a catalyst. There are two broad types of catalysts: heterogeneous catalysts (also known as contact catalysts) and homogeneous catalysts. Heterogeneous catalysts are usuallyy not in the same phase as the reactants. Their catalytic role is mostly adsorptive. In other words, a heterogeneous catalyst attracts one of the reactants to its surface such that the reactant adheres to the surface of the catalyst (adsorption). The adsorption process weakens the bonds of the reactant thereby lowering the activation energy of the reaction. Consequently, the reaction speeds up. The string that represents the role of a heterogeneous catalyst is :
S7P3A31 because adsorption is a pull.
An example of a very slow reaction involving a heterogeneous catalyst is the reaction of sulphur dioxide gas with oxygen gas : 2SO2(g) + O2(g) ---> 2SO3(g).
The addition of Vanadium Oxide (V2O5, a solid) as a heterogeneous catalyst speeds the reaction.
Homogeneous catalysts exists in the same phase as the reactants. They participate in the reaction as intermediate compounds that react more readily than the uncatalysed reactants but returned unchanged in the final step of the reaction mechanism. The string that represents the role of a homogeneous catalyst is also :
S7P3A31 because the intermediate compounds and their reactions are made possible by attractive forces.
An example of a very slow reaction involving a homogeneous catalyst is the hydrolysis of sucrose (table sugar) into glucose and fructose:
C12H22O11(aq) + H2O(l) ---> C6H12O6(aq) + C6H11O6(aq).
The addition of an acid as a homogeneous catalyst causes the reaction to proceed readily.
2(b) Inhibitors prevent the reaction of reactants and catalysts from doing their job. The string that represents the role of an inhibitor is:
S7P3A32 because inhibitors are in essence pushers. They prevent reactants from colliding.

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