Maximum Charge In Coulombs On A Bismuth Ion

**Strings (S _{i}P_{j}A_{jk}) = S_{7}P_{3}A_{31} Base Sequence = 12735 String Sequence = 12735 - 3 - 31 **

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Maximum Charge Of Bismuth Ion In Coulombs

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The above photo is of a sample of Bismuth. The atomic number of Bismuth is 83 and its electron configuration is as follows:

1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}
4s^{2}3d^{10}4p^{6}5s^{2}4d^{10}5p^{6}6s^{2}4f^{14}5d^{10}6p^{3}

Determine in Coulombs the maximum charge on a bismuth ion.

**The string**:

S_{7}P_{3}A_{a31} (Force - Pull).
**The math**:

Pj Problem of Interest is of type *force* (electrostatic).

Protons and electrons are responsible for the charge in atoms. When the atom is stable, the net charge is zero because there are just as many electrons as there are protons and the electric charge a proton carries is equal in magnitude to the electric charge of an electron and its of opposite sign.

The charge on a proton is +e while the charge on an electron is -e.

e = 1.602 x 10^{-19} coulomb

The electron configuration of bismuth indicates it has 5 valence electrons, 3 of which are dislodgable.

So, maximum charge on a bismuth ion is 3^{+}

So, maximum charge in coulombs on a bismuth ion is:

= 3 x 1.602 x 10^{-19} coulomb = 4.806 x 10^{-19} coulomb.

The *point* **.** is a mathematical abstraction. It has negligible size and a great sense of position. Consequently, it is front and center in abstract existential reasoning.

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