Pj Problems - Overview
The Number Line
7 Spaces Of Interest - Overview
Triadic Unit Mesh
States Of Matter
COHN - Natures Engineering Of The Human Body
The Human-Body Systems
Faith, Love, Charity
X and Y are amino acids, Z is an amino acid sequence.
(a) What is an amino acid?
(b) What is a protein?
(c) Identify X and Y of figure 7.
(d) Given that the space of interest is the human body, and based on the identities you established in (c), describe the reaction X + Y -------> Z of figure 7. Thus establish the PjProblemStrings Sequences of Amino Acids.
(e) What is the relationship between genes and amino acids?
(f) List the 20 amino acids found in most proteins.
(g) List the ten essential amino acids. Which of these amino acids can be produced in the body?
(h) Are all the 20 amino acids found in the body compounds of only carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen?
(i) What distinguishes one protein from another?
(j) List some fundamental and important functions of proteins.
The strings: all PjProblems at play. However, the following PjProblemStrings are of primary interest:
S7P6A62 - (grouping/interaction- single-criterion permutation)
S7P3A32 - (force-push)
S7P3A31 - (force-pull)
S7P6A66 - (grouping/interaction - chemical)
(a) An amino acid is an organic molecule that contains an amine group (-NH2) and a carboxylic acid group (-COOH). The following is the general form of the amino acids found in most proteins:
The general form of amino acids consits of three different groups and an hydrogen atom bonded to a central carbon atom. The groups are the carboxylic acid group (-COOH), the amine group (-H2N) and the R group which is a hydrocarbon group or hydrocarbon derivative. The R group distinguishes one amino acid from another. The R group is called the amino acid side chain because they hang off the side of the main chain of atoms of a protein molecule. There are four basic side chain types: polar, nonpolar, acidic and alkaline. These side chain properties play important roles in the spatial orientation of protein molecules.
(b) A protein is an amino acid sequence. In other words, a biological polymer (also called a polypeptide) constituted by amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds. An amino acid sequence formed by 2 to less than 50 amino acids linked by peptide bonds are usually called peptides
(c) X is the amino acid, Glycine, and Y is the amino acid Alanine
(d) Molar mass of amino acids in human body - S7P1A15 (containership - mass)
- Identity of amino acids - S7P2A22 - (identity - chemical)
- One oxygen atom and one hydrogen atom pushed out of the carboxyl group, one hydrogen atom pushed out of the amine group inorder to establish the peptide bond that joins amino acids X and Y to form the amino acid sequence Z (Glycine-Alanine), a dipeptide - S7P3A32 (force - push)
- The one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms pull to establish the covalent bond that formed water - S7P3A31 (force - pull)
- Change occured - S7P5A52 (chemical - change)
- The change established the groupng/interaction - S7P6A62 (grouping/interaction - single criterion permutation) and S7P6A66 (grouping/interaction - chemical)
- The amino acid sequence is stable - S7P7A72 (equilibrium - dynamic). The amino acid sequence is dynamicaly stable because it is functional.
Thus the PjProblemStrings Sequences:
(e) A gene (a region of DNA that encodes one function) encodes an amino acid sequence (a protein).
(f) Glycine (Gly), Proline (Pro), Serine (Ser), Asparagine (Asn), Alanine (Ala), Phenylalanine (Phe), Cysteine (Cys), Glutamine (Gln), Valine (Val), Threonine (Thr), Leucine (Leu), Tryptophan (Trp), Aspartic acid (Asp), Histidine (His), Isoleucine (Ile), Methionine (Met), Glutamic acid (Glu), Lysine (Lys), Tyrosine (Tyr), and Arginine (Arg).
(g) Isoleucine (Ile), Leucine (Leu), Lysine (Lys), Methionine (Met), Phenylalanine (Phe), Threonine (Thr), Tryptophan (Trp), Valine (Val), Histidine (His, essential in infants), and Arginine (Arg, enssential in growing children but not in adults). None of these amino acids can be produced in the body they must be supplied from food protein.
(h) No. Cysteine has sulphur. In an amino acid sequence that consists of one or more pairs of cysteine, the sulfhydryl groups (-S-H) in two cysteine units cross bond to form the disulfide bond (-S-S-) that links two parts of the same protein chain. An example of cysteine containing amino acid sequence is human proinsulin which has three cross-linked disulfide bonds.
(i) Proteins are distinguished by:
The number of the amino acids they contain.
The sequence of the amino acids. An amino acid sequence is unique. For example, Glycine-Alanine is different from Alanine-Glycine eventhough the sequences are formed by the same amino acids.
Their geometry in the cytosol.
(j) Important functions of proteins:
Catalysis: many enzymes that act as catalysts in biochemical reactions are protein molecules.
Transport: many molecular transporters are proteins. For example, lipoproteins transport cholesterol and fats in the blood.
Structural support: proteins in skin and bone provide structural support
Movement: muscle tissue in animals is composed of proteins.
The point . is a mathematical abstraction. It has negligible size and a great sense of position. Consequently, it is front and center in abstract existential reasoning.
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More Pj Problem Strings