Digging Air - The PjProblemStrings
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Digging Air - The PjProblemStrings

Digging Air

Land, water and air. A lot of digging going on. All three have dual traits: they are both destroyers and benefactors.
(a) Earth's atmosphere is what is called air. Briefly highlight the origin of Earth's air.
(b) Do you agree that air is the least resistive to digging when compared to land and water diggings in equivalent amounts? Why?
(c) Give at least one example of how air as a destroyer is manifested by digging air.
(d) Give at least one example of how air as a benefactor is manifested by digging air.
(e) The illustration shows a bird flying. Indicate the PjProblemstrings Sequence for the flight.
(f) In Digging Earth, and Digging Water, the following PjProblemStrings Sequence represented a simple digging of earth (lithosphere) by a bulldozer and bailing water:
Some PjProblem Strings not directly influencing the digging are implied. For example, the equlibrium of the operator and the bulldozer, the grouping/interaction and equilibrium of the earth dumped.
Identify a similar simple digging of air? How does the pjproblemstrings sequences of this simple digging of air differ from the simple digging of earth and the simple digging of water?
(g) What is the primary difference between the simple digging of air and the simple digging of earth (lithosphere) and the simple digging of water represented by the PjProblemStrings Sequence indicated in problem (f)?
(h) What is the difference between buoyancy and the digging of air?
(i) Explain the correctness or incorrectness of the following assertion: every movement in air is digging
(j) Why must living things dig?

Digging Air

The strings: all PjProblems are at play. However, S7P3A32 (force - push) and S7P3A31 (force - pull) are in focus.

In Digging Earth and Digging Water, the following proposition was presented:
In general, all exertions of forces on matter are diggings. The visibility or invisibility of the digging impressions depends on the severity of the force and the strength of the material.
This proposition is also the conceptual basis for digging air.

(a) Precise knowledge of how the Universe came to be is unavailable. What is available is a shifting best estimate based on continual deterministic information.
- Gases (H and He) were the first stable elements to emerge in the early universe. After the formation of celestial stars it became possible for higher elements to emerge through fusion in the stars and their explosions.
-By the time Earth formed about four and a half billion years ago, there was already an atmosphere of a mixture of gases. The ironic inner core of Earth and its magnetic influence provided the attractive force that stabilized the gaseous mixture (air) that constitute Earth's atmosphere. Today air is about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and fractional percentages of argon, carbon dioxide, water vapor, etc.

(b) Yes. Less dense.

(c) Hurricane - S7P3A32 (force - push)

(d) Breathing - S7P3A31 (force - pull) and S7P3A32 (force - push)

S7P1A17 - location of point of takeoff
S7P2A21 - identity of bird
S7P3A32 - force - push (thrust)
S7P4A41 - motion - linear br>S7P3A32 - force - push (lift)
S7P4A41 - motion - linear
S7P7A72 - dynamic equilibrium
So, PjProblemStrings Sequence: S7P1A17S7P2A21S7P3A32 S7P4A41
S7P3A32S7P4A41 S7P7A72

(f) suction of air. It primarily a pull action whereas the other two simple diggings are a combination of a push and pull actions.

(g) simple digging of earth by the bulldozer: visible non-transient impression (hole), invisible wave.
Simple digging of water (bailing): visible wave transient impression.
Simple digging of water (suction): invisible wave invisible impression

(h) Buoyancy is digging with constraint:
The weight of the volume of air dug by the object immersed in air (weight of air displaced) must be equal to the buoyant force (Archimede's principle).

(i) True. Same proposition as in digging earth and digging water.

(j) Living things dig to survive. For example, trees must dig air to receive the sunlight necessary for photosynthesis; humans must dig air to breathe. Survival digging also occur on land and in water. For example, trees dig earth to reach the water they need and they dig water they reach it. Humans dig earth to plant and they dig water to replenish their supply.


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