Digging Water - The PjProblemStrings
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Expressions Of Pj Problems
Digging Water - The PjProblemStrings

Digging Water

Omi o l'ọta (Yoruba for water has no enemy) is perhaps the most profound song of the great musical mind, Fẹla Anikulapo Kuti. In the song, Fẹla sang about the indispensability of water even when water is the cause of one's sorrow. Water as a destroyer and water as a benefactor constitute the dichotomous duality of the character of water. This duality is manifested by digging water.
(a) Most of Earth is water. Briefly highlight the origin of water on Earth.
(b) Give at least one example of how water as a destroyer is manifested by digging water.
(c) Give at least one example of how water as a benefactor is manifested by digging water.
(d) The illustrations shown are of a hippo relaxing in water and of ducks swimming. Indicate the PjProblemstrings Sequence for each illustration.
(e) In Digging Earth, the following PjProblemStrings Sequence represented a simple digging of earth (lithosphere) by a bulldozer:
Some PjProblem Strings not directly influencing the digging are implied. For example, the equlibrium of the operator and the bulldozer, the grouping/interaction and equilibrium of the earth dumped.
If earth is replaced by water and the bulldozer is replaced by an appropriate tool, What is the common name for this simple digging of water.
(f) What is the primary visible difference between the simple digging of earth (lithosphere) and the simple digging of water represented by the PjProblemStrings Sequence indicated in problem (e)?
(g) What is the difference between buoyancy and the digging of water?
(h) Explain the correctness or incorrectness of the following assertion: every movement on or in water is digging

Digging Water

The strings: all PjProblems are at play. However, S7P3A32 (force - push) and S7P3A31 (force - pull) are in focus.

In Digging Earth the following proposition was presented:
In general, all exertions of forces on matter are diggings. The visibility or invisibility of the digging impressions depends on the severity of the force and the strength of the material.
This proposition is the conceptual basis for digging water.

(a) Precise knowledge of how the Universe came to be is unavailable. What is available is a shifting best estimate based on continual deterministic information. Estimated knowledge about the origin of Earth posits thus:
- Planets most probably accumulated out of cold dust and gases. Earth is about four and a half billion years old.
- Presence of elements heavier than iron on Earth indicates occurrence of a Supernova (stellar explosion between the Sun and a heavier star) prior to the formation of Earth (Sun's fusion cannot produce such heavier elements).
- The Supernova left behind hot clouds of dust and gases which agglomerated as they cooled.
- About a billion year after earth's formation, radioactivity of atomic nuclei (e.g. uranium, thorium, etc) and compression pressure raised Earth's internal temperature. The duo of heat and pressure changed Earth's structure and composition. Its minerals began to separate as they reached their respective melting points. Heavier elements (e.g. iron, nickel) gradually sank to the center of the earth. Lighter elements (e.g. silicon, aluminum)rose to the surface.
- The heat and pressure squeezed out water and most of its salts from the minerals.
- It is uncertain whether primordial water escaped to the surface as steam in the atmosphere or as a continuum of a large body of water. Nonetheless, there was water everywhere waiting for the right moment for the emergence of life.

(b) Drowning, tsunami, flash flood, rain storm - S7P3A31 (force - pull)

(c) Universal solvent - S7P3A31 (force - pull)

(d) Hippo relaxing (immersion in water):
S7P1A17 - location of water
S7P2A21 - identity of Hippo
S7P3A32 - force - push (immersion)
S7P7A71 - static equilibrium
So, PjProblemStrings Sequence: S7P1A17S7P2A21S7P3A32S7P7A71

Ducks swimming:
S7P1A17 - location of water
S7P2A21 - identity of Ducks
S7P3A32 - force - push
S7P4A41 - motion - linear
S7P7A72 - dynamic equilibrium
So, PjProblemStrings Sequence: S7P1A17S7P2A21S7P3A32S7P4A41S7P7A72

(e) Bailing water.

(f) simple digging of earth by the bulldozer: visible non-transient impression (hole), invisible wave.
Simple digging of water (bailing): visible wave transient impression.

(g) Buoyancy is digging with constraint:
The weight of the volume of water dug by the object immersed in water (weight of water displaced) must be equal to the buoyant force (Archimede's principle).

(h) True. Same proposition as in digging earth.


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