Electric Circuit Of A Lab Power Supply - The PjProblemStrings Sequences

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Electric Circuit Of A Lab Power Supply - The PjProblemStrings

The electron is existentially indispensable. It is at the heart of chemical reactions; and the electrical energy that propelled humans into their unique technological sphere of influence. The electron will also play a fundamental role in homo -sapiens series' journey towards infinite intelligence.

Figure 7.7 is an electric circuit of a lab power supply put together in the TECTechnics Lab. Space of interest : S_{7}P_{1}A_{13} (1' by 1' by 4" container)
**(a)** Define: (i) electricity (ii) voltage (iii) resistance (iv) electric circuit.
**(b)** Identify the components of the circuit and their respective functions in the circuit.
**(c)** What are the three primary stages of the circuit? What are the PjProblem Strings associated with each of the stages? Thus establish the PjProblem String Sequences of the lab power supply.

**The strings**: all PjProblems at play. However, the following PjProblemStrings are of primary interest:

S_{7}P_{1}A_{14} (containership - volume)

S_{7}P_{2}A_{21}

S_{7}P_{3}A_{32} - (force-push)

S_{7}P_{4}A_{41} - (motion - linear)

S_{7}P_{5}A_{51} - (change - physical)

S_{7}P_{6}A_{65} - (grouping/interaction - physical)

S_{7}P_{7}A_{72} - (equilibrium - dynamic)

**(ai) Electricity** is *charge* in motion. There are two types of charges: positve (+) charge and negative (-) charge. The unit of measurement of *charge* is the *Coulomb* (named after Charles A, Coulomb). In the context of electricity, the charge in motion that is of primary interest is the *electron* (negative charge, -e = -1.602 x 10^{-19} C). In particular, the motion of *valence electrons* of metals called *conductors*. For example, copper (about 8.5 x 10^{28} electrons per cubic meter are free to move) and silver are good conductors. In electronics, the concept of *holes* as positive charges in motion is also of interest. The motion of charge is *current*. The unit of measurement of current is the *Ampere* (named after Andre Marie Ampere) and its symbol is *i*. When the current is a function of time it is represented by *i(t)*.

Technically, *i = dq/dt* (rate of change of charge with respect to time). In other words, 1 ampere is equal to 1 coulomb of charge moving through a fixed surface in 1 second. There are two types of current: *direct current* (DC) which flows in one direction; and *alternating current* (AC) which reverses polarity periodically.
**(ii) Voltage** is the *electromotive force* (emf) that moves charges from one point to another in an electric circuit. *Voltage* is also called *potential difference*. In other words, an *electric energy* with the capacity to do work under appropriate conditions. This energy is a consequence of the *charge fields* (*electrostatic fields*) of charges which exert attractive and repulsive forces. When one charge differs from another a *potential difference* is established between them. *Electromotive force* is the sum of *potential differences* in an *electrostatic field*. The unit of measeurement of *voltage* is the *volt* (named after Alessandro Volta). Consider points *a* and *b* in an electric field. If 1 joule of work is done in moving 1 coulomb of charge from *a* to *b*, then point *b* is at a *potential difference* of 1 *volt* with respect to *a*. In other words, the *voltage* or *potential difference* between two points in a circuit is the *work* done in moving *charge* from one point to the other.
**(iii) Resistance** is opposition to *current* flow. The material opposing the current is called a *resistor*. The unit of measurement of resistances is the *ohm* (named after Georg Simon Ohm). Ohm's Law relates voltage, current and resistance as follows:
**voltage = current x resistance**
**(iv) Electric circuit** is a current conducting network of connected electrical/electronic components that are being supplied by at least one voltage source. Any *branch* of an electric circuit is *open* (no current flows through it) if there is discontinuity in the contections of the branch (a branch is any portion of a circuit with two terminals connected to it). The branch is *closed* (current flows through it) if the connections are continuous. A *short circuit* implies zero resistance to current flow and therefore infinite current flow.
**(b) Electric/electronic components of figure 7.7**

- *AC power supply*: supplies primary voltage to the circuit

Conducting wire

- *Fuse* (F): monitors magnitude of current flowing. Effects an open circuit if current is above specification.

- *Switch* (S): on/off switch of the circuit.

- *Step-down transformers* (T1 and T2) : step down primary voltage to desired secondary voltage.

- *Bridge (full wave) rectifier: changes AC to DC
- The following components work together to regulate stepped-down voltage:
- Capacitors (C1, C2, C3, C4). C1
- Resistors (R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8)
- Potentiometer (P1 and P2).
- Diodes (D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6).
- Bipolar Junction Transistors (Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4,Q5,Q6)
The capacitors, resistors, potentiometer, diodes and BJT transistors are doubled because the regulation circuit consists of two parts, the positive part (above circuit common) and the negative part (below circuit common. Both parts function in similar manner except for the difference in voltage polarity.
(c) Three stages of lab power supply circuit
- Primary voltage stepped down ---------> Rectification of AC ------------>Regulation of desired voltage.
Primary ac voltage: S_{7}P_{3}A_{32} - (force-push)
AC is set in motion: S_{7}P_{4}A_{41} - (motion-linears)
Transformers step down primary voltage to secondary voltage: S_{7}P_{5}A_{51} - (change - physical)
Bridge rectifier changes AC to DC: S_{7}P_{5}A_{51} - (change - physical)
Regulation of voltage stabilizes voltage: S_{7}P_{7}A_{72} - (dynamic - equilibrium)
S_{7}P_{1}A_{14}S_{7}P_{2}A_{21}S_{7}P_{6}A_{65}S_{7}P_{3}A_{32}S_{7}P_{4}A_{41}S_{7}P_{5}A_{51}S_{7}P_{7}A_{72}
*

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The *point* **.** is a mathematical abstraction. It has negligible size and a great sense of position. Consequently, it is front and center in abstract existential reasoning.

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More Pj Problem Strings