Random Signals: Average And Effective Values

**Strings (S _{i}P_{j}A_{jk}) = S_{7}P_{3}A_{32} Base Sequence = 12735 String Sequence = 12735 -3 - 32 **

Expressions Of Pj Problems

Random Signals: Average And Effective Values

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The signal *v(t)* from a voltage source is a binary waveform: it is either 0.5 V or -0.5 V.

The sign change has a 50-50 chance of occurrence within the interval of 1 μs. In other words, *v(t)* has an equal chance for positive or negative values within this interval.

What is the average and effective values of *v(t)* over a period of 5 secs?

**The string**:

S_{7}P_{3}A_{32} (Force - Push) .
**The math**:

Pj Problem of interest is of type *force*. Voltage problems are *force problems*.

The binary waveform is an example of a *non-noise random signal*. *Random signals* are probabilistics. That is, they are specified only partly through their time averages (their mean, rms value, and frequency range). Some examples of *random signals* are signals picked up by a radio or TV station antenna; the voltage recorded at the terminals of a microphone due to speech utterance; binary waveforms in digital computers; image intensities over the area of a picture; and the speech or music which modulates the amplitude of carrier waves in an AM system.

There are 5(10^{6}) intervals during the 5 secs period.

So, average value of v(t), v_{avg} = [0.5(1/2)5(10^{6}) - 0.5(1/2)5(10^{6})]/5(10^{6}) = 0

Effective value, (v_{eff})^{2} = [0.5^{2}(1/2)5(10^{6}) + (-0.5)^{2}(1/2)5(10^{6})]/5(10^{6}) = (0.5)^{2}

So, v_{eff} = 0.5

The *point* **.** is a mathematical abstraction. It has negligible size and a great sense of position. Consequently, it is front and center in abstract existential reasoning.

Single Variable Functions

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The Universe is composed of *matter* and *radiant energy*. *Matter* is any kind of *mass-energy* that moves with velocities less than the velocity of light. *Radiant energy* is any kind of *mass-energy* that moves with the velocity of light.

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