Enhancement-Mode MOSFETS As Switches - The NOR Gate

**Strings (S _{i}P_{j}A_{jk}) = S_{7}P_{5}A_{51} Base Sequence = 12735 String Sequence = 12735 - 5 - 51**

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Enhancement-Mode MOSFETS As Switches - The NOR Gate

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Enhancement-mode MOSFETS are primary components in *amplification* and *switching* circuits. They are combined in various ways as *gates* to realize complex *switching* configurations.

Figure 123.5(a) is an arrangement of two *pMOS* connected in series and two *nMOS* connected in parallel to form a *NOR gate*. Figure 123.5(b) is the symbol and Figure 123.5(c) is the *truth table* for the configuration.

Show how the circuit of figure 123.5(a) functions as a NOR gate.

**The strings**:
S_{7}P_{5}A_{51} (Physical Change).
**The math**:

Pj Problem of Interest is of type *change* (physical change). Transistors are primarily used for signal *amplification* and *switching*. Both are *change* problems.

Consider figure 123.5(a). When A = 0 and B = 0, there is a conduction path from each pMOS to the output. So the output=1. The output is 0 for all other input values of A and B as shown in the truth table (figure 123.5c).

NOR-gates can also be used to build any kind of gate. For example, an INVERTER is a NOR-gate with only one input; an OR-gate is a NOR-gate with an INVERTER at its output, and an AND-gate is a NOR-gate with an INVERTER at each input.

The *point* **.** is a mathematical abstraction. It has negligible size and a great sense of position. Consequently, it is front and center in abstract existential reasoning.

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