Expressions Of Pj Problems

Pj Problems - Overview

Celestial Stars

The Number Line

Geometries

7 Spaces Of Interest - Overview

Triadic Unit Mesh

Creation

The Atom

Survival

Energy

Light

Heat

Sound

Music

Language

Stories

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States Of Matter

Buoyancy

Nuclear Reactions

Molecular Shapes

Electron Configurations

Chemical Bonds

Energy Conversion

Chemical Reactions

Electromagnetism

Continuity

Growth

Human-cells

Proteins

Nucleic Acids

COHN - Natures Engineering Of The Human Body

The Human-Body Systems

Vision

Walking

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Sensors Sensings

Beauty

Faith, Love, Charity

Photosynthesis

Weather

Systems

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Tools

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Search

Differential Calculus

Antiderivative

Integral Calculus

Economies

Inflation

Markets

Money Supply

Painting

The Spirogram - Air Flow Into Lungs

1. A *spirogram* is a device that records on a graph the volume of air in a person's lungs as a function of time. If a person undergoes spontaneous hyperventilation, the *spirogram trace* will closely approximate a sine curve. A typical trace is given by the following equation:

V(t) = 3 + 0.05sin(160πt - π/2),

where *t* is time measured in minutes and V(t) is the lung volume in liters.

(a) What is the formula for the rate of flow of air into the lungs at time *t*?

(b) What is the *peak inspiration flow*, that is, the maximum rate of flow of air during *inspiration* (breathing in)?

(c) What is the *mean inspiration flow*, that is, the average rate of flow of air during inspiration, from t = 0 to t = 1/160?

1(a)**The string**: S_{7}P_{5}A_{51} (physical change - rate of flow )
**The math**:

Rate of flow = dV(t)/dt = 8πcos(160πt - π/2)------(1).

(b) Peak inspiration flow occurs when equation (1) is maximum. This occurs when

cos(160πt - π/2) = 1. So, peak inspiration flow = 8πL/min.

(c) Mean inspiration flow = integration of rate of flow from t = 0 to t =1/160

=1/(1/160 -0)[∫_{0}^{1/160} (8πcos(160πt - π/2)]

= 160(8π/160π)[sin(160πt - π/2]_{0}^{1/160}

= 8[sin(π - π/2) - sin(- π/2) ] = 16 L/min.

Math

The *point* **.** is a mathematical abstraction. It has negligible size and a great sense of position. Consequently, it is front and center in abstract existential reasoning.

Derivation Of The Area Of A Circle, A Sector Of A Circle And A Circular Ring

Derivation Of The Area Of A Trapezoid, A Rectangle And A Triangle

Derivation Of The Area Of An Ellipse

Derivation Of Volume Of A Cylinder

Derivation Of Volume Of A Sphere

Derivation Of Volume Of A Cone

Derivation Of Volume Of A Torus

Derivation Of Volume Of A Paraboloid

Volume Obtained By Revolving The Curve y = x^{2} About The X Axis

Single Variable Functions

Absolute Value Functions

Conics

Real Numbers

Vector Spaces

Equation Of The Ascent Path Of An Airplane

Calculating Capacity Of A Video Adapter Board Memory

Probability Density Functions

Boolean Algebra - Logic Functions

Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs)

Infinite Sequences And Series

Introduction To Group Theory

Advanced Calculus - Partial Derivatives

Advanced Calculus - General Charateristics Of Partial Differential Equations

Advanced Calculus - Jacobians

Advanced Calculus - Solving PDEs By The Method Of Separation Of Variables

Advanced Calculus - Fourier Series

Advanced Calculus - Multiple Integrals

Production Schedule That Maximizes Profit Given Constraint Equation

Separation Of Variables As Solution Method For Homogeneous Heat Flow Equation

Newton And Fourier Cooling Laws Applied To Heat Flow Boundary Conditions

Fourier Series

Derivation Of Heat Equation For A One-Dimensional Heat Flow

Homogenizing-Non-Homogeneous-Time-Varying-IBVP-Boundary-Condition

The Universe is composed of *matter* and *radiant energy*. *Matter* is any kind of *mass-energy* that moves with velocities less than the velocity of light. *Radiant energy* is any kind of *mass-energy* that moves with the velocity of light.

Periodic Table

Composition And Structure Of Matter

How Matter Gets Composed

How Matter Gets Composed (2)

Molecular Structure Of Matter

Molecular Shapes: Bond Length, Bond Angle

Molecular Shapes: Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion

Molecular Shapes: Orbital Hybridization

Molecular Shapes: Sigma Bonds Pi Bonds

Molecular Shapes: Non ABn Molecules

Molecular Orbital Theory

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