Water Fall - Potential Energy To Thermal Energy
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Water Fall - Potential Energy To Thermal Energy

The water at the bottom of a water fall is warmer than the water at the top of the water fall because of the conversion of potential energy into thermal energy. Consider a water fall that is 160 ft high. How much warmer is 1 kg of water at the bottom of the water fall than at the top of the water fall if the acceleration due to gravity is 9.81 m/sec2?

The strings:
(a) S7P5A51 (Physical Change -Temperature Change)
The math:

Pj Problem of Interest (PPI) is of the type change. Problems of temperature change are in general change problems.
160 ft = 0.3048(160) meters = 48.77 meters.
1 kg of water at top of water fall has mgh potential energy = 1 x 9.81 x 48.77 = 478 Joules.
So, potential energy converted to thermal energy = 478 Joules.
Energy required to raise 1 kg of water by 10C = 4184 J (specific heat of water = 4.184 J).
So, Increase in temperature of water at bottom of water fall = 478/4184 = 0.1140C.

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